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Clergy hair and beards


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#41 Michael Stickles

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Posted 30 March 2010 - 07:22 PM

I did, in fact scan the entire 102 canons of the Quinisext council (pp287-412 in the printed version) which the above post seems to indicate is the source of these footnotes. I did not notice the comments concerning beards - but then it was a very quick scan.


I did a search on the CCEL site. "Beard" does not appear in any of the canons (not just the 102 from Trullo, but all of those included in Schaff's Seven Ecumenical Councils). "Shave" only appears in canon 17 of Grangra, which pronounces anathema on women who shave their heads out of pretended reverence.

I only found two canons of Trullo that relate to hair - canon 42, which deals with those who call themselves eremites but go about the cities, and canon 21, which talks about deposed clerics. The translation in Schaff's work renders canon 21 thusly:

Those who have become guilty of crimes against the canons, and on this account subject to complete and perpetual deposition, are degraded to the condition of layman. If, however, keeping conversion continually before their eyes, they willingly deplore the sin on account of which they fell from grace, and made themselves aliens therefrom, they may still cut their hair after the manner of clerics. But if they are not willing to submit themselves to this canon, they must wear their hair as laymen, as being those who have preferred the communion of the world to the celestial life.

Ancient Epitome of Canon XXI.
Whoever is already deposed and reduced to the lay estate, if he shall repent, let him continue deposed but be shorn. But if otherwise, he must let his hair grow.


Obviously, this won't include the footnotes/commentary in the Rudder, but I don't see anything about beards in the canons themselves - this is as close as it seems to get.

On a related note, the following statement from Jason's quote from the Rudder kind of confuses me:

The Apostles in their Injunctions, Book I, Chapter 3 command that no one shall destroy the hair of his beard, and change the natural visage of the man into one that is unnatural. “For,” says he, “God the Creator made this to be becoming to women, but deemed it to be out of harmony with men.”


Now, I had understood the "Injunctions of the Apostles" to be synonymous with the Didache (as appears to be stated in the interpretation of apostolic canon #85 in the Rudder). But the Didache doesn't have multiple books, and chapter 3 says nothing about beards in the translations I've read (nor does any other chapter in the Didache, for that matter). So I'm not sure what that statement is really referring to.

In Christ,
Michael

#42 Michael Stickles

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Posted 30 March 2010 - 07:36 PM

Whoops. Missed one. Canon 96 of Trullo states:

Those who by baptism have put on Christ have professed that they will copy his manner of life which he led in the flesh. Those therefore who adorn and arrange their hair to the detriment of those who see them, that is by cunningly devised intertwinings, and by this means put a bait in the way of unstable souls, we take in hand to cure paternally with a suitable punishment: training them and teaching them to live soberly, in order that having laid aside the deceit and vanity of material things, they may give their minds continually to a life which is blessed and free from mischief, and have their conversation in fear, pure, [and holy]; and thus come as near as possible to God through their purity of life; and adorn the inner man rather than the outer, and that with virtues, and good and blameless manners, so that they leave in themselves no remains of the left-handedness of the adversary. But if any shall act contrary to the present canon let him be cut off.

Ancient Epitome of Canon XCVI.

Whoever twist up their hair into artistic plaits for the destruction of the beholders are to be cut off.


Also, according to OrthodoxInfo's page on Concerning the Tradition of Long Hair and Beards, this is the canon which the previously-quoted commentary refers to; that page ascribes the commentary to St. Nicodemus the Hagiorite, and says it comes from pp 403-405 of the Rudder.

In Christ,
Michael

#43 Christophoros

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Posted 13 May 2013 - 04:59 PM

Old thread, but I stumbled on the following text which I quoted from a secondary source several posts back, regarding the promise of a priest prior to ordination to "wear the dress proper to the clergy, not to cut my hair nor to shave my beard..."

 

http://www.eadiocese...Examination.pdf

 

"Examination of a Candidate for Ordination"Attached File  Ordination Examination.pdf   442.71K   15 downloads

 

The document is used by the Eastern Diocese of the ROCOR, directly under Metropolitan Hilarion of New York.


Edited by Christophoros, 13 May 2013 - 05:03 PM.


#44 Ilya Zhitomirskiy

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Posted 14 May 2013 - 10:56 PM

When there is a respect for small things, there will be an even greater respect towards the bigger things. When there is no respect for small things, then neither will there be for the bigger ones. This is how the Fathers maintained Tradition.

- Blessed Elder Paisios of Mount Athos

I completely agree. This is true especially of liturgics, where the smallest and most neglected services, such as the Ninth Hour, have a treasure trove of useful texts to live our lives by. Even the small actions have a certain significance. In some traditions, prostrating before the altar even during Pascha shows our respect for the altar as a holy place on which the Bloodless Sacrifice is being offered. A clergyman dressed properly will not necessarily have less temptations, but will have more of an inclination to act properly and not be too conspicuous. Not only attire, but also the look of a priest is important. If in the Orthodox Church, an iconographic tradition has emerged, it will do best for priests to follow it, not to betray what their fathers before them did.



#45 Jean-Serge

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Posted 22 May 2013 - 02:51 PM

I completely agree. This is true especially of liturgics, where the smallest and most neglected services, such as the Ninth Hour, have a treasure trove of useful texts to live our lives by. Even the small actions have a certain significance. In some traditions, prostrating before the altar even during Pascha shows our respect for the altar as a holy place on which the Bloodless Sacrifice is being offered. A clergyman dressed properly will not necessarily have less temptations, but will have more of an inclination to act properly and not be too conspicuous. Not only attire, but also the look of a priest is important. If in the Orthodox Church, an iconographic tradition has emerged, it will do best for priests to follow it, not to betray what their fathers before them did.

 

Yes but at the same time prostratring during Easter is an irrespect of the rule of not prostrating during Easter. Small metanies should be made.



#46 Rdr Andreas

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Posted 22 May 2013 - 04:42 PM

I agree with Jean-Serge.  Since our tradition is that we do not kneel or prostrate from Pascha to Pentecost vespers, we should follow it.  Doing otherwise may suggest a degree of self-will and the giving of an impression that one is more pious than others.  We should in general do nothing in church which draws attention to ourselves.  Besides, what do the Kneeling Prayers at Pentecost vespers mean if we have been kneeling beforehand anyway?



#47 Anna Stickles

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Posted 23 May 2013 - 11:59 AM

I just read a sermon of St John Chrysostom that dealt with this. The basic message was that piety (respect) is a response that is appropriate to the person or situation at hand. He used the example that being sober and restrained at a funeral is appropriate piety, the same way that being cheerful and engaging at a feast is likewise. I am paraphrasing and don't remember the exact words.


Edited by Anna Stickles, 23 May 2013 - 12:02 PM.


#48 Kevin T. Wall

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Posted 24 May 2013 - 09:21 PM

Beards were supposedly declared anathema in Russia, even for laymen, in the 18th century or so -- presumably as a result of Jesuit influence and not anything Scriptural or patristic. There exists an illustration from that time period of a demon poking a naked man with a needle, causing wounds all over his body, with the caption 'Torment of the Beard-shavers' or along those lines. These things are often cultural.



#49 Rdr Andreas

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Posted 25 May 2013 - 12:05 AM

This is not quite right.  Beards were not 'declared anathema' in Russia.  Emperor Peter I returned from western Europe in 1698 and was determined to westernise Russia.  The boyars were told to shave off their beards or pay a tax.  I am not aware that clergy had to shave: portraits of Metropolitan Stefan Yavorskiy show him with a beard.  Presumably, serfs did not shave.



#50 Kevin T. Wall

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Posted 25 May 2013 - 03:38 AM

From http://ecumenizm.tri...NIZM/id29.html:

Traditionally Orthodox Russians, not only their clergy, wear a moustache and a beard symbolizing the image of Christ in man (see the canonical icon-painting of Christ). To counteract the penetration of Latin influence from the South-West, the Moscow Council of 1551 had even forbidden to perform the burial service for the "beard-shavers". Later, under Peter I, the process of atheization in Russia coincided with the reforms which deprived people of God's image. (See V.N. Il'in, "The Harp of David", San Francisco, 1980, pp. 35-36). It is well known that Peter's reforms were not only political and economic, but that they affected the spiritual aspect of life most of all by means of such measures as the abolition of Patriarchy, the attacks upon monasticism and so on. People were being deprived of God's image by Peter's enforced order to cut off beards (in this connection people would say: "You are free to chop off our heads, but leave our beards alone!"), and by subsequent introduction of beard taxes. Sometimes, ridiculing his retainers, Peter would personally cut off their beards, thus grievously offending them. Hence it is obvious, why Emel'ian Pugachev, leader of the insurrection of 1773-1774, wishing to win over the people, promised to give them back "the cross and the beard". The external, "bodily appearance" must harmonize with the spiritual essence of man. "Know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God? " (1 Cor. 6, 19). Is this not the reason why so much is being done today to accustom people, especially our youth, to untidiness and ugliness?



#51 Reader Luke

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Posted 21 June 2013 - 11:16 PM

I think the long hair should be done away with, it's a relic of Turkish oppression. Beards on the other hand are a little different. If a Priest is clean-shaven or has a shorter beard/goatee, it's not a big deal. I would say though that our monastics (this includes our Bishops) should have beards.

 

I know of 1 Priest who has no facial hair, I know only 3 clergy who have long hair, that being two deacons and a Priest.

 

Look at Orthodox iconography from the 4th Century to the 15th, and you won't see clergy with long hair, or at least, not very many. Also look at Christian iconography during the same time period, and long beards won't be too common until the latter half of that time period.

 

I don't think we should use that as an excuse to do away with long hair, but I think that is a perfect example of why we shouldn't make clergy have long hair or beards, at least our Priests.

 

However, I can see long hair and beards being required for male monastics as sort of a symbol of their rejection of worldly things, including appearance and vanity.


Edited by Devin B., 21 June 2013 - 11:22 PM.


#52 Olga

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Posted 22 June 2013 - 05:02 AM

Also look at Christian iconography during the same time period, and long beards won't be too common until the latter half of that time period.

 

I'm afraid this can very easily be disproved, Devin. Some examples which instantly come to mind are Apostle Andrew, St John the Evangelist and Theologian in his old age, Sts Basil the Great, St Gregory of Nyssa, St Gregory the Theologian, St Athanasius the Great, and St Anthony the Great. It would not be difficult to find many, many more examples from the early centuries of saints with long beards.

 

I think the long hair should be done away with, it's a relic of Turkish oppression.

 

It's safe to say that Christ and most of the Apostles had long hair, many centuries before the Ottomans were even thought of. ;)



#53 Jean-Serge

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Posted 22 June 2013 - 08:27 AM

Long hair was the tradition for hermits while monks had a visible tonsure that can be seen on some icons. Later, the monks adopted the long-hair style of the hermits.



#54 Rdr Andreas

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Posted 22 June 2013 - 09:41 AM

I thought that bishops and priests had long hair and beards because they stand in the place of Christ in their priestly ministry.  I do not like to see clean-shaven Orthodox priests (or deacons) - it suggests conformity to modernist and western ideas, like the wearing of the western-style dog collar.  I was once introduced to a clean-shaven priest wearing a dog collar.  I shook his hand.  I was told he was an Orthodox priest.  My response was, how was I supposed to know?



#55 Olga

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Posted 22 June 2013 - 12:00 PM

I thought that bishops and priests had long hair and beards because they stand in the place of Christ in their priestly ministry.  I do not like to see clean-shaven Orthodox priests (or deacons) - it suggests conformity to modernist and western ideas, like the wearing of the western-style dog collar.  I was once introduced to a clean-shaven priest wearing a dog collar.  I shook his hand.  I was told he was an Orthodox priest.  My response was, how was I supposed to know?

 

In countries where Orthodox emigrants settled, this was indeed the norm of appearance and dress for Greek and Antiochian clergy for decades. This is not simply a matter of history, but something I have directly observed in my lifetime. I can say that in the past 30 years or so, this is becoming increasingly uncommon in my part of the world. I can also say that I have never met a clean-shaven Orthodox priest in my time, thank goodness. Even those priests who held "day jobs" were/are bearded.



#56 Christophoros

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Posted 22 June 2013 - 04:50 PM

On a related topic...

 

Does the Cassock Make the Priest?
 
Priests and Metropolitans speak out concerning the attire of the clergy
 
April 4, 2013
 
We have become accustomed in Greece to seeing our priests move among us wearing cassocks (rasa, rason). To some the attire invites respect while for others it invites problems. How easy is it for a young man who loves the Church, to join its ranks, when he knows he must move around everywhere with this black costume? How easy is it for a woman to follow him in life and become a "priest's wife"? This issue has been addressed at times, not only by ordinary priests but also by hierarchs.
 
Th glorious Metropolitan Alexandros of Peristeri (+ 1978) wrote in the epilogue of his book The Outer Garb of Orthodox Clergy (Η εξωτερική Περιβολή του Ορθοδόξου Κληρικού): "Married parish clergy should not be prevented from making free use of the cassock and costume outside of clerical tasks. Such a solution is imperative. In this way the complaints of oppression and the excuses of those who want to become priests will disappear by not obligating the wearing of the cassock everywhere and always, something which is difficult to reconcile with a family man/parish priest."
 
Metropolitan Theoklitos of Ioannina, however, who is the only Metropolitan to make an appearance with a suit, speaking with the Typo in 2002, made clear that the priest is not only characterized by the cassock he wears: "At this time our Church has forgotten one thing: the independence of man, and it tries to win the priest and the faithful over with his allegiance to some human wishes. I think anyone who wears a cassock or a suit can be a priest. But it is superfluous to talk about the appearance of the clergy."
 
As for the difficulties faced by clergy to move around, he ascribed it to the general climate of pietism:
 
"The cassock is to blame for young girls not marrying priests, or perhaps all of us because we do not allow a priest to take his wife by the arm and go for a stroll. Herein is the problem of pietism which results from mixing with Protestantism. We have falsely made the priest a saint and not allowed God to make him a saint."
 
This matter has concerned, in recent years, Metropolitan Anthimos of Alexandroupolis. He has "dared" to raise the issue of simplifying the appearance of clergy and the hierarchs of the Hierarchy, like the late Archbishop Christodoulos, causing an uproar, mainly from his spiritual father, Metropolitan Anthimos of Thessaloniki. But he seems to even now argue the same views.* He believes the garb of the clergy should be changed. Vestments should be simplified and gradually phased out.
 
"In our country there is still a numbness regarding this. They want our priests to wear something that distinguishes them," say the Metropolitan of Alexandroupolis. He further notes: "I agree the attire of clergy today are a heavy burden especially for married clergy. We have boys ready to become priests, but they can't find a wife easily. Already our younger priests take off their kalymavkion, they do not wear the outer cassock with the sleeves, and in the summer they are more comfortable, and they go to the beach with their wife and children together with the people. If our attire continues, and our words and our ways are a continuity of our rich ancient language, if the Byzantine tradition is not moved to today, then it is doomed to become relics for a museum."
 
The brocaded vestments, the mitres adorned with precious stones, the staffs of precious metals, provoke most believers. Especially nowadays when more and more people are facing serious survival problems. Vestments however have a liturgical role in the church and are not used for gimmicky reasons, explains Metropolitan Paul of Sisaniou:
 
"If someone goes to Mount Athos they will see all day monks moving around with holes in their cassocks, holes in their shoes, and often with dirty cassocks. However, when they see them liturgizing then they will see them dressed brilliantly. And the question is simple: what are they trying to do? Who are they trying to impress? Other monks? Some pilgrims? But they always wear these, depending on the day. There is a certain symbolism. Vestments show that what is happening at this time, the Divine Liturgy or the Sacrament, belongs to the realm of another world that enters within our own world. It is therefore symbolic."
 
Especially in recent years, he says, hierarchs are increasingly choosing a more simple appearance, not because of cost, but so as not to offend their flock. Yet the pious, he says, are not scandalized.
 
But what do the ordinary clergy say about this matter?
 
In 1997 the glorious Evangelos Skordas wrote: "The abolition of the current attire of clergy will not be easy to do suddenly. The Greek people need to be seriously enlightened. Perhaps the cassock could, with a clear understanding of the subject by the Holy Synod, remain as a formal dress of the clergy on major feasts and official appearances. The current inner cassock (anteri) can be modified to become the current everyday dress, at least for the married parish priests. Hieromonks can keep the cassock. Besides, it is exclusively theirs, since it is from them it came from. This will stop the perseverance of some parish clergy from wearing the cassock everywhere and always even in 40 degree celcius heat, which causes them to persevere the joking of the people and adverse comments."
 
The Orthodox Clergy Association of Greece seems to have a different view. The issue was even discussed at a recent general meeting. Fr. George Vamvakidis, a spokesman for the association, says:
 
"The response and the decision of the general meeting, with the absolute majority we can say - a vast great majority with few exceptions - is that the outer appearance of the clergy should remain as is, without modification, without simplification, without the abolition of the sacred cassock, which our Church has entrusted. It is to be understood that the decision of the general meeting is my personal opinion as well. We firmly believe that the non-arrival of young, capable clergy to the ranks of the clergy, is not related so much to the external attire as the mentality that prevails in the ranks of our Church."
 
According to Fr. George, young people have a misconception about the clergy and their lifestyle today, as if they remain in older times. He says:
 
"They have a misconception about the lifestyle of the clergy. They think that the cleric is isolated and cut off from the body of society, while it is quite the opposite. The clergyman is absolutely synonymous and united with the body of society. The view that the cleric is aloof has simply remained. They even have in mind that the clerics of olden times would not go out, did not socialize in public places, places frequented by young people, where they could be searched for and found. But such a thing no longer exists, because the presence of a cleric, we can say, is a positive presence in every place, even in those places that do not comply with the status of the clergy, such as the infamous nightclubs, which do not bring something beneficial to the soul but we think they bring devastating consequences for the human soul."
 
Regarding finding women who are willing to become presvyteres, he believes that not even there does the cassock cause a problem.
 
"My personal experience, and I am not a clergyman that was ordained yesterday but I have been a cleric for over twenty years, and within the position of church administration and as a spiritual father, I can judge and conclude that it is not so much the problem that it appears and is advertised that women are not becoming presvyteres due to the sacred cassock. It is primarily the life, the attention, the vigilance, and the care the cleric should have. Women now cannot coexist with such a lifestyle such as the holy spiritual life of a cleric."
 
The majority of hierarchs support the maintenance of the cassock
 
The cassock is a garment of Orthodox clergy formed by tradition and is his distinctive recognition, says Metropolitan Hierotheos of Nafpaktos:
 
"It has a history connected with sacrifices, struggles, tears and blood. As you know, many functions in society have some sort of distinctive clothing, such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, etc. To clergy the cassock reminds them that they are spiritual physicians and not just social workers. The life of the cleric is sacrificial, an ongoing offering that requires the coming out of ones self to offer himself to others. This is connected with the struggles, the sacrifices, the patience in slanders and the criticisms of the people. Ultimately I believe that the cassock does not make the work of the clergy more difficult, but rather it is the high mission of the Priesthood that is difficult. For someone to don a cassock is the smallest sacrifice they can do."
 
According to Mr. Hierotheos neither the Church nor the Greek community is ready to accept such a big change.
 
"The Church moves slowly with changes as is the same in every culture, so as not to simultaneously eliminate the deeper aspects of its tradition. Any change should be handled with care to ensure the essence of ecclesiastical life. The Church should not easily alter to any new thing, because there lurks the danger of alienation. I also think that society is not ready to accept the elimination of the cassocks from the clergy. There are some who want the priest without the cassock, but most want their clergy to respect tradition, to express what they represent and are sincere in their mission."
 
The Metropolitan of Sisaniou does not seem positive about a change of clerical clothing outside the church area:
 
"Among our people there is a tradition, a tradition that wants a priest with a certain physiognomy, especially with his cassock. And it seems that our people, with this tradition it has, would not be able to tolerate this. It bothers them, and this is seen when sometimes they meet a priest from abroad who circulates in regular clothes. A priest who becomes a priest knows what he is becoming and that he exists in our land. Accordingly, it is not unknown to the priest himself how he is to be as a priest, and on the other hand, neither is the believer ready or mature enough to see something different. Of course, our people do say that the cassock does not make the priest, and this is true. On the other hand, it seems that the cassock has a multicomponent element of how the priest is to be in this land."
 
Metropolitan Dorotheos of Syros is against a comprehensive decision that will simplify or abolish priestly attire:
 
"A young man today who makes the decision to lift the heavy cross of the priesthood, the least thing he should worry about is his attire, because there are other things for which he will have to give an account before God, and there are other things which the faithful expect from the cleric. The thing today a cleric should occupy himself most with is that his conscience remain clean, that his witness be holy, that his work be worthy of his mission, which is the priesthood he bears, and that he could truly be considered worthy of his high ministry undertaken through the priesthood. These should be his main goal, and not if he will wear a cassock and kalimavkion."
 
According to the Metropolitans, the Church has shown in recent years a tolerance regarding the appearance of the clergy. Things, they say, have been simplified enough for young clerics and a discussion on the abolition of the cassock should not be considered at this time.
 
* The statement of the Metropolitan of Alexandroupolis was published in the newspaper National Herald on 01/16/2003.
 
 


#57 Father David Moser

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Posted 22 June 2013 - 08:21 PM

The "long hair" of a priest or a monastic is actually not "long" hair but "uncut" hair.  Hair has been the sign of an oath from time immemorial. We see that this link is clearly referred to as an established practice in the Old Testament (for example the hair of Sampson).  The New Testament also witnesses to this practice in the Acts of the Apostles. (Acts 18:18 & 21:24).  

 

The common practice was to cut off the hair at the taking of the vow and then not cut the hair again until the vow was fulfilled.  The growth and cutting of the hair was a symbol of keeping that vow.  We do this today in a symbolic manner by tonsuring those who are baptized and chrismated as a sign of their promise to live according to the life of Christ.  Those who are monastics and clergymen are also tonsured at the giving of a vow - that is the vow to live in obedience to the law of God, the calling of the priesthood (or monasticism) and to one's superiors (bishops/abbots/spiritual fathers as appropriate).  As a priest, I was given this tonsure at the time I was raised to the rank of reader. At the time of my ordination to the diaconate, and again at my ordination to the priesthood, that vow was renewed (although a new tonsure was not required).  When I am done with that vow - that is when I am no longer a priest - I will cut my hair to symbolize the completion of the vow, however, since I don't anticipate every renouncing the priesthood or being "done" with that vow, I expect that I will continue to leave my hair and beard "uncut" to the day I die.

 

Fr David Moser



#58 Reader Luke

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Posted 25 June 2013 - 08:07 PM

I'm afraid this can very easily be disproved, Devin. Some examples which instantly come to mind are Apostle Andrew, St John the Evangelist and Theologian in his old age, Sts Basil the Great, St Gregory of Nyssa, St Gregory the Theologian, St Athanasius the Great, and St Anthony the Great. It would not be difficult to find many, many more examples from the early centuries of saints with long beards.

 

 

It's safe to say that Christ and most of the Apostles had long hair, many centuries before the Ottomans were even thought of. ;)

 

I wouldn't speak so fast about that, I'll give some examples from iconography.

 

The earliest depictions we have of Christ, up until the 300s, all show Christ with short hair, and no beard. Examples of this would be the "Good Shepherd" images and other depictions:

Dura Europas Church, ca. 235: http://upload.wikime...s-paralytic.jpg

St. Callisto Catacombs, ca. 250: http://upload.wikime...d_02b_close.jpg

Catacombs of Priscilla, ca. 250-299: http://upload.wikime...rd_01_small.jpg

Catacombs of Rome, Sarcophagus Slab, ca. 200-299: http://upload.wikime...12-Apr-2008.jpg

Catacombs of Via Latina, ca 300-350: http://upload.wikime..._of_Lazarus.jpg

Catacombs of Domitilla, ca 300-399: http://upload.wikime...ist_teacher.jpg

 

It isn't until the middle-late 300s that we see a bearded Christ with long hair:

Catacombs of Ss. Marcellenius and Peter, ca. 350-399: http://upload.wikime...Paul_detail.jpg

Catacomb of Comodilla, ca. 350-399: http://upload.wikime..._with_beard.jpg

 

As for icons of the Apostles, St. Peter is usually shown with a short beard and short hair, St. Paul is shown with a medium to long beard and short hair.

Catacomb of St. Thekla, ca. 300-399: http://roughplacespl...ints-peter-paul

Catacomb Etching, ca. 300-399: http://upload.wikime...ury_etching.JPG

San Vitale in Ravenna, ca. 547: http://upload.wikime..._Ravenna_02.jpg

Catacombs of Ss. Marcellenius and Peter, ca. 350-399: http://upload.wikime...stPeterPaul.jpg

 

As for depictions of Bishops in ancient times without beards or long hair.

San Vitale in Ravenna, ca. 547, St. Justinian with Archbishop Maximian: http://upload.wikime...Ravenna_003.jpg

San Vitale in Ravenna, ca. 547, Angel presenting Church to Bishop Ecclesius: http://upload.wikime...SanVitale16.jpg

Santa Cecilia in Travestere, ca. 800-899, He's holding the Church on the left side of the apse: http://upload.wikime...ere_altare_.jpg

Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, ca. 800-899, St. John Chrysostom: http://upload.wikime...nchrysostom.jpg

 

As for depictions of Bishops in ancient times with beards, but no long hair.

St. Demetrios in Thessaloniki, ca. 500-599: http://upload.wikime...aloniki_002.jpg

Chudlov Psalter, ca. 800-899, St. John Chrysostom: http://upload.wikime..._Chrysostom.jpg

 

Between the 6th & 9th Century, it gets really hard to find icons, especially in the East. I'll continue looking.

 

However, I will continue maintaining my stance that Bishops didn't have long hair until after the Turkish occupation. Some did have beards prior to that point, but I don't think they had really long beards until after the 10th Century.



#59 Lakis Papas

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Posted 25 June 2013 - 09:58 PM

Just for the record, St. Demetrius of Thessaloniki, was not a Bishop. 

 

As an officer in the Roman army under the command of Tetrarch (and then Emperor) Galerius Maximian , Demetrius became a Christian and imprisoned in Thessaloniki in 303, when Diocletian was emperor. According to tradition, from  the prison he blessed his disciple Nestor to defeat the heathen wrestler Lyaio. The victory of Nestor enraged Maximian who was present in stage. So, St Nestor was beheaded, and St Demetrius murdered  with a spear. They are both Christian martyrs.

 

St Demetrius is also patron saint of city of Thessaloniki.



#60 Rdr Andreas

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Posted 25 June 2013 - 10:17 PM

Between the 6th & 9th Century, it gets really hard to find icons, especially in the East.

 

Unsurprisingly. 

 

The early depictions of Christ as a beardless shepherd ought not to be taken as icons in the sense that that was subsequently understood.  They are not portraits of Christ but symbolical images.  Initially, it is likely that images were made to conform to the expectations of the people of the Greco-Roman world of the first and second centuries.  To say, though, that Orthodox bishops, indeed priests as well, did not have long hair until after 1453 does not seem at all right, and one can certainly see icons of the time of St Sergius and before of Russian saints which indicate this.  Olga, however, will no doubt answer for herself.






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