As others have said there was more structure in the early church's worship then appears in the Scripture. The Didache is one of the earliers documents we have and is contemporary with some of the later writings we find in the NT. (70-100 AD)
Here is the structure of the Thanksgiving (Eucharist) service that we see in the Didache, which parallels very closely with what is given in St. Luke's gospel (Luke 22 in red, quotes from the Didache in blue) But reading the Didache we get more of a feel for what the service actually looked like, and the content of the prayers.
(From the Didache) 14. 1. But every Lord's day do ye gather yourselves together, and break bread, and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice may be pure. 2. But let no one that is at variance with his fellow come together with you, until they be reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be profaned.
(Luke 22) "14 When the hour came, Jesus and his apostles reclined at the table. And he said to them, “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. 16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again until it finds fulfillment in the kingdom of God.”
17 After taking the cup, he gave thanks and said, “Take this and divide it among you. 18 For I tell you I will not drink again from the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.”
(Didiache) First, about the cup: "We thank you, our Father, for the holy vine of your servant David which you made known to us through your servant Jesus. Glory be to you for the age.
19 And he took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me.”
Now about the broken loaf: "We thank you, our Father, for the life and the knowledge that you made known to us through your servant Jesus."
"Glory be to you for the age."
"Just as this broken loaf was scattered on top of the hills and as it was gathered together and became one, in the same way let your assembly be gathered together from the remotest parts of the land into your kingdom."
"For yours is the glory and the power through Anointed Jesus for the age." (Notice how this is set up as a conversation, a prayer and a response just as we still currently have in our services. The doctrinal content of our prayers surrounding the consecration are more involved, but the basic structure has not changed )
Now no one should either eat or drink from your thanksgiving meal, but those who have been baptized into the Lord's name. For about this also the Lord said, "Do not give what is holy to the dogs." (We no longer have this first cup nor do we take the bread as part of a meal, these were dropped gradually in the 2nd- 3rd century)
20 In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you"
Now after you have been filled, give thanks this way:
"We thank you, holy Father, for your holy name, which you made to live in our hearts, and for the knowledge and trust and immortality which you made known to us through Jesus your servant." "Glory be to you for the age."
"Almighty master, it was you who created all for the sake of your name. You gave both food and drink to people for enjoyment, so that they might give thanks to you. But to us you have freely given spiritual food and drink and eternal life through your servant. Before all things, we are thankful to you that you are powerful." "Glory be to you for the age."
"O Lord, remember your assembly (church), remember to rescue it from every evil and to make it complete in your love, and to gather it from the four winds into your kingdom which you prepared for it — it, which has been made holy." "For yours is the power and the glory for the age."
"Let generosity come, and let this universe pass away. Hosanna to David's son!"
If someone is holy, let him come. If someone is not, he should change his mind (ie repent) Marana-tha. A-mein." (We still say, “Holy things for the Holy". At this point then they would have come to partake of the cup.
“Now permit the prophets to give thanks as much as they want.”
After the cup it seems there was a time for the traveling prophets to preach as is mentioned in Corinthians. This very much makes the Gospels and Acts come alive.
We can also see in the Didache that the charistmatically gifted prophets and teachers existed alongside regular clergy, both were to be respected and had ministries in the church. the same thing exists in Orthodoxy today. We see spiritually gifted people like Elder Paisios teaching people (they are usually coming to him rather than him traveling around like the early prophets did) and we also have clergy.
Didache) 15. 1. Appoint, therefore, for yourselves, bishops and deacons worthy of the Lord, men meek, and not lovers of money, (1 Timothy 3:4) and truthful and proved; for they also render to you the service of prophets and teachers. 2. Despise them not therefore, for they are your honoured ones, together with the prophets and teachers.
Another first century document, the letter of the Romans to the Corinthians makes a direct correspondence between the ordained orders in the Jewish society and what existed in the church, and uses this as a starting place to tell the Corinthians that they ought to follow the proper hierarchical and liturgical order of ministry according to how each was appointed.
"These things therefore being manifest to us, and since we look into the depths of the divine knowledge, it behooves us to do all things in [their proper] order, which the Lord has commanded us to perform at stated times. He has enjoined offerings [to be presented] and service to be performed [to Him], and that not thoughtlessly or irregularly, but at the appointed times and hours. Where and by whom He desires these things to be done, He Himself has fixed by His own supreme will, in order that all things being piously done according to His good pleasure, may be acceptable to Him. Those, therefore, who present their offerings at the appointed times, are accepted and blessed; for inasmuch as they follow the laws of the Lord, they sin not. For his own peculiar services are assigned to the high priest, and their own proper place is prescribed to the priests, and their own special ministrations devolve on the Levites. The layman is bound by the laws that pertain to laymen.
Let every one of you, brethren, give thanks* to God in his own order, living in all good conscience, with becoming gravity, and not going beyond the rule of the ministry prescribed to him."
*probably a reference to the Eucharist (the Greek word Eucharist simply means thanksgiving)
Edited by Anna Stickles, 06 February 2015 - 01:28 AM.